Andrew Clegg Photo

Professor Andrew Clegg

Chair of Geriatric Medicine

ORCID: 0000-0001-5972-1097

Andy is an academic geriatrician with research interests in frailty, delirium and dementia. He is currently deputy lead for the Yorkshire & Humber NIHR CLAHRC Older People’s Theme, entitled ‘Primary care-based management of frailty in older people’.

Andy is CI for an NIHR Programme Grant to optimise and evaluate personalised care planning for older people with frailty and CI for the NIHR HTA-funded Home-based Extended Rehabilitation for Older People (HERO) trial. Andy is also CI for the Community Ageing Research 75+ (CARE 75+) multi-site cohort study to investigate frailty, disability and quality of life trajectories in older age, and evaluate interventions to improve outcomes using a novel ‘trial within cohort’ (TWiCs) design.


Andy led the development, validation and implementation of the award winning and NICE-recommended electronic frailty index (eFI) using data from around 1M UK patients contained in the ResearchOne and THIN primary care research databases.

Key publications include a 2013 Lancet seminar review on frailty in elderly people and a Cochrane review on interventions for preventing delirium in older people in long-term care. Andy was a member of the 2016 NICE multi morbidity guideline development group, the 2010 NICE delirium guideline development group and the NHS Evidence advisory panel. Andy referees applications for the NIHR and MRC, and is a reviewer for the Lancet, BMJ and Age & Ageing journals.

Recent Funding Awarded

Walters K, Clegg A, Goodman C, Marston L, Hopkins J, Cooper C, Logan P, Skelton D, Hunter R, Manthorpe J, Gardner B, Drennan V, Frost R, Avgerinou C. Clinical and cost-effectiveness of a personalised health promotion intervention enabling independence in older people with mild frailty (‘HomeHealth’): A Randomised Controlled Trial. NIHR HTA £1,833,313.78, 01/05/2020-30/04/2023

Clegg A, Crocker T, Ensor J, Forster A, Gladman J, Riley R. Community-based complex interventions to sustain independence in older people, stratified by frailty: a systematic review and network meta-analysis NIHR HTA £298,981.99 01/12/2019-31/05/2021

Clegg A, Blagojevic-Bucknall M, Conroy S, Hulme C, Humphrey S, Nikolova S, Relton S, Richards S, Riha W, Riley R, van der Windt D, Walters K, West R. Development and evaluation of the electronic frailty index+ (eFI+) tool: integrated prognostic-decision modelling to target interventions for older people with moderate or severe frailty. NIHR HTA £548,507.12, 01/09/2019-30/04/2022.

Clegg A, Birks Y, Boijke C, Farrin A, Forster A, Hawkins R, Hawley M, Mountain G, Mukuria C, Rodriguez M, Reeve J, Richards S, Sheard L, Spilsbury K, Teale E, West R, Wilberforce M. Applied Research Collaborations: Older People with Frailty theme. NIHR Applied Research Collaborations £1,424,815; 01/10/2019-30/09/2024.

Ekers D, Coventry P, Dexter-Smith S, Brown D, Bosanquet K, Lovell K, Hill A, Clegg A, Traviss-Turner G, Gentry T. *M*ulti-morbidity in *O*lder Adults with *D*epression *S*tudy (MODS). NIHR PGfAR £2,429,219.00; 01/10/2018-01/07/2023 (69 months)

Walsh B, Fraser SDS, Roderick P, Clegg A, Barkham AM, Zhu S. The dynamics of frailty in older people: modelling impact on health care demand and outcomes to inform service planning and commissioning NIHR,HS&DR Programme £765,357.71; 01/02/2019-31/01/2022 (36 months)

Silman A, Clegg A, Prieto-Alhambra D, Strauss VY, Gentry T. Identifying trajectories of progression of frailty in elderly individuals. NIHR RfPB £149,550; 01/04/2019-31/03/2021.

Rodgers S, Hillcoat-Nalletamby S, Berridge D, Clegg A. Safe in my own home? Investigating the impact of community home modification services on hospital utilisation for fall injuries: a controlled longitudinal study using data linkage. Llywodraeth Cymru Welsh Government Health Research Grants. £222,376.00; 01/10/2017-30/09/2019.

Todd O, Young J, Clegg A. Optimising blood pressure management for older people with frailty. The Dunhill Medical Trust Research Training Fellowship £192,301, 2017 (36 months)

Clegg A, Young J, Bower P, Cundill B, Farrin A, Foster M, Foy R, Hartley S, Hawkins R, Hulme C, Humphrey S, Pendleton N, Teale E, West R, Holmes J. Personalised care planning to improve quality of life for older people with Frailty. NIHR, Programme Grants for Applied Research £2,754,006; 01/09/2017-31/12/ 2022 (64 months).

Clegg A, Young J, Forster A, Farrin A, Hartley S, Hulme C, Clarke D, Wright P, Cundill B. Randomised controlled trial evaluation to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of a Home-based exercise intervention as Extended Rehabilitation in Older people with frailty following acute illness or injury, including internal pilot and embedded process evaluation (HERO). NIHR HTA £2,038,930.19; 01/03/2017- 31/05/2021 (51 months).

Young J, Clegg A, Nolan M, Mountain G, Teale E, Spilsbury K, Hanratty B, Noble B, Parry J Bates C, Hawkins R, Astell A, Young T. Primary Care-Based Management of Frailty in Older People. NIHR CLAHRC, £999,868; 01/01/2014-31/12/2018.

Clegg A, Young J. The Home-Based Older People’s Exercise (HOPE) Programme. An exercise programme to improve the functional status of community-dwelling frail older people. Royal College of Physicians & Dunhill Medical Trust Research Fellowship. £109,536, 01/10/09 – 31/09/2011.

Recent Publications

Hinde S, Bojke L, Richardson G, Birks Y, Whittaker W, Wilberforce M, Clegg A. Delayed transfers of care for older people: a wider perspective. Age Ageing 2021. afab035,

Crocker TF, Clegg A, Riley RD, Lam N, Bajpai R, Jordão M, Patetsini E, Ramiz R, Ensor J, Forster A, Gladman JRF. Community-based complex interventions to sustain independence in older people, stratified by frailty: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2021;11(2):e045637.

Coventry PA, McMillan D, Clegg, A, Brown L, van der Feltz-Cornelis C, Gilbody S, Ali S. Frailty and depression predict instrumental activities of daily living in older adults: A population-based longitudinal study using the CARE75+ cohort. PLOS one, 2020;15(12), p.e0243972.

Wilkinson C, Clegg A, Todd O, Rockwood K, Yadegarfar ME, Gale CP, Hall M. Atrial fibrillation and oral anticoagulation in older people with frailty: a nationwide primary care electronic health records cohort study. Age Ageing 2020, afaa265,

Hollinghurst J, Housley G, Watkins A, Clegg A, Gilbert T Conroy SP. A comparison of two national frailty scoring systems. Age Ageing 2020, afaa252,

Ahmed S, Heaven A, Lawton R, Rawlings G, Sloan C, Clegg A. Behaviour change techniques in personalised care planning for older people: systematic review. British Journal of General Practice 2020; bjgp20X714017.

Wilkinson C, Wu J, Searle SD, Todd O, Hall M, Kunadian V, Clegg A, Rockwood K, Gale CP. Clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation and frailty: insights from the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial. BMC Medicine 2020; 18:401.

O’Caoimh R, Sezgin D, O’Donovan MR, Molloy DW, Clegg A, Rockwood K, Liew A. Prevalence of frailty in 62 countries across the world: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-level studies. Age Ageing 2020, afaa219,

Munyombwe T, West RM, Pendleton N, Clegg A. Mapping between the Electronic Frailty Index and a Research Standard Frailty Index: Findings from the Community Ageing Research 75+ (CARE 75+) Cohort Study. Advances in Geriatric Medicine and Research 2020;2(4):e200023.

Brown L, Mossabir R, Harrison N, Brundle C, Smith J, Clegg A. Life in lockdown: A telephone survey to investigate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on the lives of older people (≥ 75years). Age Ageing 2020; afaa255,

Muscedere J, Afilalo J, de Carvalho IA, Cesari M, Clegg A, Eriksen HE, Evans KR, Heckman G, Hirdes JP, Kim PM, Laffon B, Lynn J, Martin F, Prorok JC, Rockwood K, Manas LR, Rolfson D, Shaw G, Shea B, Sinha S, Theou O, Tugwell P, Valdiglesias V, Vellas B, Veronese N, Wallace LMK, Williamson PR & the Canadian Frailty Network. Moving Towards Common Data Elements and Core Outcome Measures in Frailty Research. Journal of Frailty & Aging 2020;9(1)14-22.

Hale M, Zaman H, Mehdizadeh D, Todd O, Callaghan H, Gale CP, Clegg A. Association between Statins Prescribed for Primary and Secondary Prevention and Major Adverse Cardiac Events among Older Adults with Frailty: A Systematic Review. Drugs & Aging 2020; 37:787–799

Nikolova S, Hulme C, West R, Pendleton N, Heaven A, Bower P, Humphrey S, Farrin A, Cundill B, Hawkins R, Clegg A. Normative Estimates and Agreement Between 2 Measures of Health-Related Quality of Life in Older People With Frailty: Findings From the Community Ageing Research 75+ Cohort. Patient-Reported Outcomes 2020:23(8)1056-1062.

Heaven A, Bower B, Cundill B, Farrin A, Foster M, Foy R, Hartley S, Hawkins R, Hulme C, Humphrey S, Lawton R, Parker C, Pendleton N, West R, Young J, Clegg A. Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial evaluating personalised care planning for older people with frailty: PROSPER V2 27/11/18. Pilot and Feasibility Studies 2020; 6:56.

Witham MD, Chawner M, Biase S, Offord N, Todd O, Clegg A, Sayer AA. Content of exercise programmes targeting older people with sarcopenia or frailty – findings from a UK survey Journal of Frailty Sarcopenia & Falls 2020; 5(1):17-23. doi: 10.22540/JFSF-05-017

Farrow M, Biglands J, Tanner SF, Clegg A, Brown L, Hensor EMA, O’Connor P, Emery P, Tan AL. The effect of ageing on skeletal muscle as assessed by quantitative MR imaging: an association with frailty and muscle strength. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 2020.

Sezgin D, O’Donovan M, Wong J W, Bandeen-Roche K, Liotta G, Fairhall N, Laso AR, Apóstolo J, Clarnette R, Holland C, Roller-Wirnsberger R, Illario M, Mañas MR, Vollenbroek-Hutten M, Yavuz BB, Balci C, Pernas FO, Paul C, Ahern E, Romero-Ortuno R, Molloy W, Cooney MT, O’Shea D, Cooke J, Lang D, Hendry A, Rockwood K, Clegg A, Liew A, O’Caoimh R. 269 Early Identification of Frailty: Developing an International Delphi Consensus for a Definition of Pre-frailty, Age and Ageing 2019;48(3):iii17–iii65,

Jacob I, Mahmood F, Brown L, Heaven A, Mahmood S, Clegg A. Recruiting older people from the Pakistani community in Community Ageing Research 75+. British Journal of Community Nursing 2020;25(3):110–113 doi: 10.12968/bjcn.2020.25.3.110

Todd OM, Burton JK, Dodds RM, Hollinghurst J, Lyons RA, Quinn TJ, Schneider A, Walesby KE, Wilkinson C, Conroy S, Gale CP, Hall M, Walters K, Clegg AP. New Horizons in the use of routine data for ageing research. Age Ageing, 2020; afaa018,

Hale MD, Santorelli G, Brundle C, Clegg A. A cross-sectional study assessing agreement between self-reported and general practice recorded health conditions among community dwelling older adults. Age Ageing 2019;49(1):135-140. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afz124

Todd OM, Wilkinson C, Hale M, Wong NL, Hall M, Sheppard JP, McManus RJ, Rockwood K, Young J, Gale CP, Clegg A. Is the association between blood pressure and mortality in older adults different with frailty? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 2019;48(5):627-635. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afz072.

Hale M, Shah S, Clegg A. Frailty, inequality and resilience. Clinical Medicine 2019;19(3):219-223. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.19-3-219.

Offord NJ, Clegg A, Turner G, Dodds RM, Sayer AA, Witham MD. Current practice in the diagnosis and management of sarcopenia and frailty – results from a UK-wide survey Journal of Frailty Sarcopenia & Falls 2019 J Frailty Sarcopenia Falls. 2019;4(3):71-77. doi: 10.22540/JFSF-04-071.

Witham MD, Roberts HC, Gladman J, Stott DJ, Aihie Sayer A, Aspray TJ, Brock P, Clegg A, Cox N, Ewan V, Frith J, Burton JK, Jackson T, Lewis EG, Lim SE, Makin S, Lochlainn MN, Richardson S, Shenkin SD, Steves CJ, Todd O, Tullo E, Walker R, Yarnall A. Extended Working Group* from the NIHR Newcastle Biomedical Research Centre Meeting. Growing research in geriatric medicine. Age Ageing. 2019 [online] doi: 10.1093/ageing/afy220

Brown L, Young J, Teale E, Santorelli G, Clegg A. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Impact of Pain in Older People with Frailty: Findings from the Community Ageing Research 75+ (CARE75+) Study. Advances in Geriatric Medicine and Research 2019;1:e190002.

Heaven A, Brown L, Young J, Teale E, Hawkins R, Spilsbury K, Mountain G, Young T, Goodwin V, Hanratty B, Chew-Graham C, Brundle C, Mahmood F, Jacob I, Daffu-O’Reilly A, Clegg A. Community ageing research 75+ study (CARE75+): an experimental ageing and frailty research cohort. BMJ Open 2019;9(3):e026744. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026744

Crocker TF, Brown L, Clegg A, Farley K, Franklin M, Simpkins S, Young J. Quality of life is substantially worse for community-dwelling older people living with frailty: systematic review and meta-analysis. Quality of life research 2019;28:2041–2056.

Brundle C, Heaven A, Brown L, Teale E, Young J, West R, Clegg A. Convergent validity of the electronic frailty index. Age Ageing 2019;48(1):152-156.

Wilkinson C, Todd O, Clegg A, Gale CP, Hall M. Management of atrial fibrillation for older people with frailty: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 2018 doi: 10.1093/ageing/afy180. [Epub ahead of print]

Reeves D, Pye S, Ashcroft D, Clegg A, Kontopantelis E, Blakeman T, VanMarwijk H. The challenge of ageing populations and frail people: can primary care adapt? BMJ 28;362:k3349. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k3349.

Clegg A, Hassan-Smith Z. Frailty and the endocrine system. Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology 2018;6(9):743-752. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30110-4

Stow D. Hanratty B, Robinson L, Barclay SIG, Iliffe S, De-Biase S, Clegg A, Matthews F. Evaluating frailty scores to predict mortality in older adults using data from population based electronic health records: case control study. Age Ageing 2018. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afy022

Pugh R, Ellison A, Pye K, Subbe CP, Thorpe CM, Lone NI, Clegg A. Feasibility and reliability of frailty assessment in the critically ill: a systematic review. Critical Care 2018; 22:49. doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-1953-9.

Bebb O, Smith FGD, Clegg A, Hall M, Gale CP. Frailty and acute coronary syndrome: A structured literature review. European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care 2017 (online).

Teale EA, Siddiqi N, Clegg A, Todd OM, Young J. Non-pharmacological interventions for managing delirium in hospitalised patients. 2016 Mar 11;3:CD005563. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005563.pub3.

Clegg A, Bates C, Young J, Ryan R, Nichols L, Teale EA, Mohammed MA, Parry J, Marshall T. Development and validation of an electronic frailty index using routine primary care electronic health record data. Age and ageing. 2017;5(3):353-60. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afw039.

Yarnall AJ, Sayer AA, Clegg A, Rockwood K, Parker S, Hindle JV. New horizons in multimorbidity in older adults. Age and Ageing. 2017;46(6):882-888.

Todd O, Clegg A. A Randomized Trial of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control. The New England journal of medicine. 2016;374:2290-2295.doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1602668

Heaven A. Brown L, Foster M; Clegg A. Keeping it credible in cohort multiple Randomised Controlled Trials: the Community Ageing Research 75+ (CARE 75+) study model of patient and public involvement and engagement Research Involvement and Engagement 2016doi: 10.1186/s40900-016-0044-9.

Clegg A, Bates C, Young J, Ryan R, Nichols L, Teale E, Mohammed MA, Parry J, Marshall T Development and validation of an electronic frailty index using routine primary care electronic health record data Age Ageing 2016;45(3):353-60.

Siddiqi N, Harrison JK, Clegg A, Teale EA, Young J, Taylor J, Simpkins SA. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016; DOI 10.1002/14651858.CD005563.pub3. Issue 3.

Clegg A, Young J. Frailty and organization of health and social care. In:Frailty in Aging: Biological, Clinical and Social Implications. Editors: O Theou, K Rockwood. Karger 2015;48:161-173.

Brown L, Young Y, Clegg A, Heaven A. Pain in older people with frailty. Reviews of Clinical Gerontology 2015;25(03): 159-171.

Harrison J, Clegg A, Conroy S, Young J. Managing frailty as a long-term condition. Age Ageing 2015;44:732–735.

Clegg A, Young J. Frailty and Organization of Health and Social Care. Interdisciplinary topics in gerontology and geriatrics 2015;41:161-173.

Siddiqi N, Clegg A, Simpkins SA, Young J, Holt R, Harrison JK, Taylor J. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015;1. Art. No.: CD005563. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD005563.pub2.

Clegg A,Rogers L, Young J.Diagnostic test accuracy of simple instruments for identifying frailty in community dwelling older people. Age Ageing 2015;44(1):148-152.

Clegg A,Relton C, Young J,Witham M. Improving recruitment of older people to clinical trials: use of the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. Age Ageing 2015;44(4):547-550.

Handforth C, Clegg A,Young C, Simpkins S, Seymour MT, Selby P, Young J.The prevalence and outcomes of frailty in older cancer patients: a systematic review. Annals of Oncology 2015; 26(6):1091-1101.

Heaven A,Cheater F, Clegg A, Collinson M, Farrin A, Forster A, Godfrey M,et al. Pilot trial of Stop Delirium! (PiTStop) – A complex intervention to prevent delirium in care homes for older people: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials 2014;15:47.

Turner G, Clegg A.Best practice guidelines for the management of frailty: a British Geriatrics Society, Age UK and Royal College of General Practitioners report. Age Ageing 2014;43(6):744-747.

Clegg A, Bates C, Young J, Teale E, Parry J. Development and validation of an electronic frailty index using existing primary care health record data. Age Ageing 2014;43(2):ii19. [Abstract].

Clegg A, Barber S, Young J, Iliffe S, Forster A. (HOPE) trial: a pilot randomised controlled trial of a home-based exercise intervention for older people with frailty. Age Ageing 2014;43(5):687-695.

Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, Rikkert MO, Rockwood K. Frailty in elderly people. The Lancet 2013; (9868): 752-62.

Clegg A, Young J, Siddiqi N. Delirium in cardiac patients: a clinical review. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing 2012; 7(3): 111-5.

Clegg A, Siddiqi N, Holt R, Young J. Interventions for preventing delirium in older people in institutional long-term care (protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD009537. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009357.

Clegg A, Barber S, Young J, Forster A, Iliffe S. Do home-based exercise interventions improve outcomes for frail older people? Findings from a systematic review. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology 2012 22;68-78.

Barber S, Clegg A, Young J. Is there a role for physical activity in preventing cognitive decline in people with mild cognitive impairment? Age Ageing 2012;41:5-8.

Clegg A, Young J. In-hospital delirium risk assessment, diagnosis and management: medications to avoid. Italian Journal of Medicine 2011;5:98-102.

Clegg A, Barber S, Young J, Forster A, Iliffe S. The Home-Based Older People’s Exercise (HOPE) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Trials 2011;12:143.

Clegg A, Young J. Which medications to avoid in people at risk of delirium: a systematic review. Age Ageing Jan 2011; 40(1):23-29.

Clegg A, Young J. The Frailty Syndrome. Clinical Medicine 2011;11(1):72-75.

Clegg A, Westby M, Young J. Under-reporting of delirium in the NHS. Age Ageing Mar 2011; 40(2):283-286.

Clegg A, Smith S. Gerotechnology series: bedding aids. European Geriatric Medicine. 2010; 1(6): 385-390.

Clegg A, Daverede L, Wong W, Loney E, Young J. Recurrent syncope and chronic ear pain. BMJ Case Reports 2010; 1-3.

Siddiqi N; Clegg A; Young J. Delirium in care homes. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology 2009; 19:309-316.

Clegg A, Young J. Frailty and organization of health and social care. In:Frailty in Aging: Biological, Clinical and Social Implications. Editors: O Theou, K Rockwood. Karger 2015;48:161-173.